Main Article Content
Traumatic Brain Injury (TBI) is a major public health epidemic. An estimated 5.3 million Americans, or 2.3% of the population of the United States, currently live with disabilities resulting from TBI (Thurman et al. 1999). TBI that requires hospitalization has long-term consequences for an estimated 37% of survivors (Whiteneck et al. 2004), with disabilities typically manifesting in four spheres: physical, cognitive, emotional, and social (Junqué et al. 1997). The condition can alter how an individual perceives, thinks, and communicates with others (Dahlberg et al. 1997). Common effects of brain injuries include headaches and dizziness (Alexander 1995), deficits in memory and concentration (Van Zomeren and Van den Burg 1985), as well as chronic pain (Lahz and Bryant 1996), and fatigue (Cantor et al. 2008). Comorbid psychiatric illness, particularly depression and anxiety, are common sequelae after TBI (Jorge et al. 1993).